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Water Pollution in Gurgaon

Water Pollution and RO Water Treatment

Water pollution: Defined

The presence of contaminated substances that dilute the normal consistency of water and make it unsuitable for drinking or any other usage purpose is called water pollution. Pollution in water cause severe problems for both habitants and habitats equally.

The intensity of water pollution is measured by the volume of diluted toxic substances mixed in water. However, the waters of oceans, lakes, rivers can naturally clean up the water by diluting it harmlessly. Various scientific water treatments are used to separate pollutants and purify water eventually.

Are there any changes in odour, colour or taste of polluted water?

Polluted water often shows change in colour, odour and taste. However, the extent of noticeable changes in polluted water is impacted by the source from where the water has been polluted.

The Different Types of Water Pollution

Our drinking water has different sources like seas, oceans, lakes and rivers. These water resources are also known as surface water, but there is a huge volume of water that exists below the surface as well.

A large volume of water is stored underground in the acquifers, which is also known as groundwater. We cannot see this water from the surface of the ground, but can pretty much imagine how the Acquifers purify the rivers and oceans and help produce a great volume of drinking water.

Concern rises when any kind of poisonous/polluted substances from the surroundings get mixed with the water and make it unfit for drinking. For instance, the weed killers in garden filter into the ground, causing ground water pollution.

Although, ground water pollution is traceable, underground water pollutants are difficult to be discovered despite being most severe. In a recently conducted survey, it was revealed that more than half the groundwater wells in India were polluted with weed killers.

The two main water resources are ground water and surface water. Both can become polluted in different ways, point source pollution, non-point source pollution and trans-boundary pollution.

What is point source pollution?

When pollution arises from a single point or location, for example a discharge pipe from an industry, it is called point-source pollution. Examples include discharge of oil from a vehicle into the drain, oil leakage from a tanker or discharge of oil or sewage from a brick field chimney or any factory. It should be known that point source pollution is grave but it is less impactful than nonpoint-source pollution.

What is nonpoint-source water pollution?

A large volume of water pollution, on the other hand, is more terrible and occurs from several sources. This is called nonpoint-source water pollution. Unlike point source pollution that mostly affects the water close to the source, nonpoint source water pollution diffuses through a large area of water body from various places in the environment at once.

What is trans-boundary pollution?

When pollution affects badly at any one particular location, but has a ripple effect 100s or 1000s of miles away, it is called trans-boundary pollution. An example would be when radioactive waves travel from the nuclear processing units across huge oceans.

What causes water pollution?

Water pollution is a terrible environmental phenomenon that should be controlled before the pollutants cause harm to the human bodies or the environment. It is wrong to think that water pollution originates in water. A very little portion of pollutants are born in water, while the rest are caused due to environmental reasons.

Almost 80% of ocean pollution is caused from the land. Any aggressive or unprincipled human activity may badly affect the quality of the environmental water. Human activities involving chemical use for fertilizing lands can immoderately harm the quality of groundwater or surface water when washed away by rain into rivers or streams.

Poisonous gases emitted from factory or locomotive chimneys have a negative influence on the environment. The pollutants dispersed in air fall back to the earth in form of rain, and get mixed with rivers, seas, lakes, thus causing water pollution. The severe condition is described as atmospheric deposition.

For a better understanding, we give you the reasons for water pollution that have been listed below:

  • Ocean/water dumping

    Disposing rubbish into the water like plastic, rubber, glass, food waste, aluminium and metallic waste poorly affect the standard and quality of sea water. Why? It’s because when they decompose, the massive amount of waste pose threat to the purity and quality of sea water. For instance, aluminium takes over 200 years, paper takes 2 months and glass even a longer time to decompose, thus polluting the water and causing deaths of water animals.

  • Industrial waste

    Many industrial units do not follow proper waste management system, as a result of which there is no disciplined control on the large amount of waste discharged in fresh water.

    Every year, a large scale of industries, factories, locomotives or ships produce high quantity of waste, containing poisonous chemicals and pollutants in the air. The debris in the atmosphere falls upon the earth in the form of rain that gets dissolved in various water bodies.

    The toxic chemicals produced in air and water contain the most detrimental pollutants like asbestos, lead, nitrates, sulphur, mercury and other toxic chemicals. These have the potential to degrade the quality of water by infusing a foul smell and diluting the natural colour of water, thus making unsuitable for drinking or using for any purpose. Pollutants further increase the amounts of minerals, identified as Eutrophication that changes the temperatures in water posing severe menace to water organisms.

  • Global Warming

    Global warming has a deeper impact on the environment. For example, the greenhouse effect causes the earth’s temperature to increase abnormally impacting the water temperature as well. Affected water temperature is, indeed, a huge curse to all marine life and acquatic species.

  • Septic Tanks

    Almost every household in India has septic tanks where the excreta substance flushed out from the toilet gets collected in the tank. Over the time, the solid substances get separated from the liquid substances, and eventually with the aid of biological processes the fragments of solids drain out in the drainage system. From this point, the waste escapes to the soil and water bodies causing intense pollution in water.

  • Oil leakage

    Accidental oil leakage from oil tanks or other industrial sources into the water is a major matter of concern. Huge volume of oil discharged get dissolved in sea, rivers and reservoirs, deteriorating the quality of water and impacting the local marine wildlife.

  • Tube and underground storage leaks

    Petroleum and many other liquid products are stored in metal and steel tubes underground. With the passing of time, the tubes start to corrode thus giving into breakage. The oil released mixes with the nearby water bodies and the surrounding soil that gradually get diffused in water with the rain.

  • Sewage

    Every year, there is a large scale dumping of sewage in the water caused due to the mushroom growth of industries. The water contaminated due to sewage is highly threatening to human health and its well being. In the long run, the contaminants that get mixed with water add a yellowish colour and a foul smell, making it dangerous for human usage purpose.

    Sewage dumping affects the environment massively, resulting into intimidating health issues like diarrhoea and other water-borne diseases. Looking back to the report created by the World Health Organization in 2013, 2.5 billion people in the world do not have any access to proper sanitation, while 780 million people do not have any access to safe drinking water.

    In the last decade, there have been some commendable progress in getting access to drinking water, but there is yet more to be done for improving global sanitisation. It should be noted that the most common water-related illness is diarrhoea that takes several lives each year. Estimations produced by WHO says that the disease kills 760,000 children under the age of five every year, while it is supposedly to cause 135 million people deaths by the year 2020.

    Despite the use of flush toilets in developed countries, sewage disposal is still a persistent problem. Sadly, in countries like Britain and Mexico, the practice of disposing sewage in rivers and oceans continues. Sewage consists of various harmful chemicals, pharmaceutical drugs, poly, plastic, tissues, paper, and garbage. The contaminants in the form and bacteria released from sewage in water cause diseases like hepatitis, cholera and typhoid, other than diarrhoea.

    The good news is some countries have already started taking willing initiatives to prevent sewage disposal in the water. For example, the tiny island of Guernsey (located between Britain and France) was in reports in the early 2012 when the country’s government declared the stoppage of 16,000 tons of sewage into the sea every day.

  • Atmospheric condition

    When harmful gases are released in the air by factory chimneys and locomotives, gases like sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide pollute the atmosphere aggravating the quality of water in ponds, seas and reservoirs as well. In the process, the toxic gases mix with water particles in the air resulting into poisonous substances. This turns into acid rain that falls on the ground and gets washed into water bodies, thus affecting water organisms.

Water pollution side effects: An Introduction

The effects of water pollution can be highly severe or fatal, depending upon the extent of chemicals, types of concentrations, presence of pollutants in water. Both rural and urban locations report of highly contaminated water in areas where tube wells/wells, the main source of water, are not properly checked for any contamination in the water supplied.

Rural people mostly rely on privately-owned water sources and private wells for daily water supply. If the tube wells are not inspected regularly (at least quarterly), the water produced may turn catastrophic for people. There should at least be a disinfection device installed inside the well to make sure that the water taken from it is safe for drinking.

Water bodies like streams, rivers, cisterns, seas are considered to be the most unsafe drinking water sources. Even poorly constructed tube wells/wells that have not be drilled and does not feature a watertight casing into the depths of minimum 6 metres below the surface of the land produce contaminated water unsafe for drinking.

You will find a majority of water bodies located near and around the urban zones infected by pollution. The reasons include harmful chemicals and garbage disposals released by factories, health centres, ships, manufacturing units, market places and health centres into the waters. Needless to say, this hugely impacts the health of people and even several organisms to the extent of devastation.

The Possible Effects of Water Pollution

  • Diseases

    Drinking polluted water not only affects humans but also pose a great danger to marine and aquatic life. Having contaminated water bearing harmful substances and pollutants, may result into diarrhoea, cholera, hepaitis, upset stomach, and other water-borne diseases in humans. Consuming seafoods that have been polluted may lead to hepatitis that is life threatening if not treated carefully.

    In many developing and under-developed nations, a majority of the population is differing from dreadful intestinal diseases and cholera because of inadequate and ineffective drinking water treatment. Gastrointestinal diseases are the common results of drinking poor quality water. While some diseases are noticeable immediately after consuming harmful drinking water, there are many other diseases that go unnoticed for many years. The stomach-related illnesses include diarrhoea, vomiting, nausea and cramping.

  • Damages to the eco system

    The eco-system plays an intermediate role between us and nature for creating a survival strategy for both. If left untreated in the garb of nature’s torment, the eco-system can be seriously affected by water pollution leading to catastrophic results. Many places in the country are maliciously affected by human carelessness and the pollution is striking back cruelly to destroy humans in many ways.

    The health, biological chemistry and age of an individual determine how poorly the contaminants of polluted water may affect his/her health. Other factors to be taken into account are the quantity and kind of contaminants and the period for which a person has been drinking the polluted water determine the severity of the diseases.

    There are various ways to fight water pollution and installing an RO system is a great way of treating contaminated water.

Technological advancements for polluted water treatment

Three prominent water treatment solutions were invented way back in the 1920s that include, reverse osmosis, ultra filtration and electro dialysis. Despite its initial success, there was not much progression observed in the water treatment processes in the next 40 years.

Later in 1960, there was a sudden change in technological advancements that brought dimensional differences to waste treatment technology and quality of water. Till date, the reverse osmosis system along with other membrane technologies are performing great to ensure clean and safe water supply for drinking and other purposes.

How the Reverse Osmosis system performs?

Reverse Osmosis, popularly known as RO, is a point-of-use water treatment professional method that offers exceptional means of enhancing the expertise of filters in purifying the quality of water. The RO combines filtration techniques and ion exchange methods in pre and post water treatment.

The recent advancement in RO technology, popularly known as activated carbon system, is capable of purifying water without harming the essential minerals originally present in it. It should, however, be remembered that the activated carbon technology works successfully in RO system at a water pressure of 50 psi.

Where other filtration methods fail, reverse osmosis is able to provide almost 88% removal of the most dissolved solids and sediments in water. It is also capable of 100% elimination of turbidity and asbestos from water for purifying purpose. What’s more the technology works effectively to remove any cations and anions, as indexed by the EPA Drinking Water Regulations.

Unlike most other membranes, the RO has a superior potential to eliminate dissolved organics that are difficult to be strained otherwise. If you consider a present day filtration RO system, it is able to eliminate 40% of nitrate, 30% of silver and 98% of sulphate.

Back in 1978, an annual conference on ‘’Lead Removal in Home Water Purifiers’’ was held by the American Water Works Association in Atlantic City in New Jersey on June 27th, which demonstrated how an RO system functions most diligently and fruitfully.

There were discussions at the conference how an RO at home working at an average water pressure is capable of reducing lead concentration from 762 micro grams per litre to a minimum 22 micro grams per litre. The commendable part was how an installed activated carbon filter further enhanced the RO’s ability to reduce the 22 micro grams per litre to the lowest 5 micrograms per litre. This eventually leads to 99% of removal of both activated carbon and RO.

Most households do not install an RO system because they think that the water they drink is safe for drinking and does not require a purifier. Therefore, before fitting an RO, you must know if the water is polluted.

Is my water polluted?

The technique of detecting water pollution is generally quite a complex procedure. While some types of water pollutions like oil leakage/discharge from factories or tanks to the oceans and rivers are quite evident, other types of water pollutions are less obvious and quite tricky to determine.

In cases, when the pollutants present in water are hardly visible and difficult to determine, the quality of water must be check with the help of the following procedures:

  • In order to assess the quality and purity of water, scientists examine aquatic species like insects, mammals, fishes and other invertebrates present in the water. If the water quality is able to support distinct kinds of organisms, it is supposedly good water, but if it cannot support any marine life, the quality is inarguable detrimental. In the latter case, the ‘biological index of water quality’ shows poor results.
  • Another method used by scientists is sampling the quality of water taken from any river or pond. If the concentration of poisonous chemicals is high, the water is polluted, which should therefore not be used for drinking purpose. The term used for checking the chemical content is termed ‘chemical index of water quality’, which shows high when the concentration of harmful chemicals is high.

Water pollution is a matter choice. We may choose to live with waste-strewn surfaces, toxic water bodies and dead seas; or implement an adequate cure to save the planet. At Perfect Healthcare, our motto is to combat water pollution with environmentally-friendly initiatives. We aim at reducing pesticides, chemicals, harmful dissolved substances and toxics from water by ensuring a justified water treatment process.

Our range of water purifiers and RO products aim at meeting the health standards of both humans and other living organisms. It should be known that the destruction of water pollution is often reversible. It is our choice whether to allow our planet get destroyed by pollution or join hands to make it a safer and healthier planet.

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